# VITEEE 2025 Syllabus

**Updated On:**25/09/2024

**VITEEE 2025 Syllabus**

Candidates appearing for **VITEEE** examination for the year 2025 will have to correctly answer 125 multiple-choice questions of one mark each. They can choose to appear for one of the question paper sets out of medical & non-medical sets. The questions will be based on Physics, Chemistry, English, Biology/ Mathematics subjects.

**Physics**

**Laws of Motion & Work, Energy, and Power:**

- Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications
- Static and kinetic friction - laws of friction -rolling friction - lubrication.Work was done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic energy - work-energy theorem - power.
- Conservative forces: conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies) - non-conservative forces: motion in a vertical circle - elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.

**Properties of Matter:**

- Elastic behavior - Stress-strain relationship - Hooke's law - Young's modulus - bulk modulus -shear modulus of rigidity - Poisson's ratio - elastic energy
- Viscosity - Stokes' law - terminal velocity -streamline and turbulent flow - critical velocity. Bernoulli's theorem and its applications
- Heat - temperature - thermal expansion: thermal expansion of solids - specific heat capacity: Cp, Cv -latent heat capacity
- Qualitative ideas of Blackbody radiation: Wein's Displacement Law - Stefan's law.

**Electrostatics:**

- Charges and their conservation; Coulomb’s law-forces between two-point electric charges - Forces between multiple electric charges-superposition principles
- Electric field – electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field intensity due to a dipole - the behaviour of a dipole in a uniform electric field
- Electric potential - potential difference-electric potential due to a point charge and dipole equipotential surfaces – the electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges.
- Electric flux-Gauss’s theorem and its applications
- Electrostatic induction-capacitor and capacitance –dielectric and electric polarisation – parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium –applications of capacitor – energy stored in a capacitor - Capacitors in series and in parallel – action of points – Van de Graaff generator.

**Current Electricity:**

- Electric Current – flow of charges in a metallic conductor – drift velocity and mobility and their relation with electric current
- Ohm’s law, electrical resistance - V-I characteristics – electrical resistivity and conductivity-classification of materials in terms of conductivity – Carbon resistors – colour code for carbon resistors - combination of resistors – series and parallel – temperature dependence of resistance – internal resistance of a cell – potential difference and emf of a cell - combinations of cells in series and in parallel.
- Kirchoff’s law – Wheatstone’s Bridge and its application for the temperature coefficient of resistance measurement - Metre bridge - the special case of Wheatstone bridge - Potentiometer principle - comparing the emf of two cells.

**Magnetic Effects of Electric Current:**

- Magnetic effect of electric current – Concept of the magnetic field - Oersted’s experiment – Biot-Savart lawMagnetic field due to an infinitely long current carrying straight wire and circular coil – Tangent galvanometer – construction and working – Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid – magnetic field lines.
- Ampere’s circuital law and its application
- Force on a moving charge in the uniform magnetic field and electric field – cyclotron – Force on current carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field – Forces between two parallel current carrying conductors - definition of ampere.
- Torque experienced by a current loop in a uniform magnetic field - moving coil galvanometer – conversion to ammeter and voltmeter – current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment - Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron.

**Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current:**

- Electromagnetic induction - Faraday’s law - induced emf and current - Lenz’s law. Self-induction - Mutual induction - self-inductance of a long solenoid - mutual inductance of two long solenoids.
- Methods of inducing emf - (i) by changing magnetic induction (ii) by changing area enclosed by the coil and (iii) by changing the orientation of the coil (quantitative treatment).
- AC generator - commercial generator. (Single phase, three phase). Eddy current - applications -transformer - long distance transmission
- Alternating current - measurement of AC - AC circuit with resistance - AC circuit with inductor - AC circuit with the capacitor - LCR series circuit - Resonance and Q - factor - power in AC circuits.

**Optics:**

- Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens maker’s formula
- Magnification, the power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, a combination of a lens and a mirror. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism
- Scattering of the light-blue colour of the sky and reddish appearances of the sun at sunrise and sunset.
- Wavefront and Huygens’s principle - Reflection, total internal reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts
- Interference - Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width - coherent source - interference of light - Formation ofcolours in thin films - Newton’s rings.
- Diffraction - differences between interference and diffraction of light- diffraction grating. The polarisation of light waves - polarisation by reflection - Brewster’s law - double refraction - Nicol prism - uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids - rotatory polarisation - polarimeter.

**Dual Nature of Radiation and Atomic Physics**:

- Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics - Electromagnetic spectrum - Photoelectric effect - Light waves and photons - Einstein’s photoelectric equation - laws of photoelectric emission - particle nature of light - photocells and their applications.
- Atomic structure – discovery of the electron – specific charge (Thomson’s method) and charge of the electron (Millikan’s oil drop method) – alpha scattering – Rutherford’s atom model.

**Nuclear Physics:**

- Nuclear properties - nuclear radii, masses, binding energy, density, charge - isotopes, isobars and isotones- nuclear mass defect - binding energy - stability of nuclei - Bainbridge mass spectrometer.
- Nature of nuclear forces - Neutron - discovery - properties - artificial transmutation - particle accelerator.
- Radioactivity - alpha, beta and gamma radiations and their properties - Radioactive decay law - half life -mean life - artificial radioactivity - radioisotopes - effects and uses - Geiger - Muller counter
- Radiocarbon dating
- Nuclear fission - chain reaction - atom bomb - nuclear reactor - nuclear fusion - Hydrogen bomb - cosmic rays - elementary particles.
**Semiconductor Devices and their Applications**:- Semiconductor basics - energy band in solids: difference between metals, insulators and semiconductors -semiconductor doping - Intrinsic and Extrinsic semiconductors
- Formation of P-N Junction - Barrier potential and depletion layer-P-N Junction diode - Forward and reverse bias characteristics - diode as a rectifier - Zener diode-Zener diode as a voltage regulator – LED
- Junction transistors - characteristics -transistor as a switch - transistor as an amplifier - transistor as an oscillator.
- Logic gates - NOT, OR, AND, EXOR using discrete components - NAND and NOR gates as universal gates - De Morgan’s theorem - Laws and theorems of Boolean algebra.

** Chemistry**

**Atomic Structure:**

- Bohr’s atomic model-Sommerfeld’s extension of atomic structure; Electronic configuration and Quantum numbers; Shapes of s,p,d,f orbitals - Pauli’s exclusion principle - Hund’s Rule of maximum multiplicity- Aufbau principle
- Emission and absorption spectra, line and band spectra; Hydrogen spectrum – Lyman, Balmer, Paschen, Brackett and Pfund series; deBroglie’s theory; Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle – wave nature of electron – Schrodinger wave equation(No derivation)
- Eigen values and eigenfunctions. Hybridization of atomic orbitals involving s,p and d orbitals.

**p,d and f – Block Elements:**

- p-block elements – Phosphorous compounds; PCl3, PCl5 – Oxides
- Hydrogen halides, Inter halogen compounds. Xenon fluoride compounds
- General Characteristics of d – block elements – Electronic Configuration – Oxidation states of first-row transition elements and their colours
- Occurrence and principles of extraction: Copper, Silver, Gold, and Zinc. Preparation and properties of CuS02, AgNO3, and K2Cr2O7
- Lanthanides – Introduction, electronic configuration, general characteristics, oxidation state –lanthanide contraction, uses, a brief comparison of Lanthanides and Actinides.

**Coordination Chemistry and Solid State Chemistry:**

- Introduction – Terminology in coordination chemistry – IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds
- Isomerism, Geometrical isomerism in 4-coordinate, 6-coordinate complexes. Theories on coordination compounds – Werner’s theory (brief), Valence Bond Theory
- Uses of coordination compounds. Bioinorganic compounds (Haemoglobin and chlorophyll)
- Lattice – unit cell, systems, types of crystals, packing in solids; Ionic crystals – Imperfections in solids – point defects
- X-Ray diffraction – Electrical Property, Amorphous solids(elementary ideas only).

**Thermodynamics, Chemical Equilibrium, and Chemical Kinetics:**

- I and II law of thermodynamics – spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes, entropy, Gibb’s free energy – Free energy change and chemical equilibrium – significance of entropy. Law of mass action – Le Chatlier’s principle, applications of chemical equilibrium. Rate expression, order and molecularity of reactions, zero order, first order and pseudo first order reaction – half life period. Determination of rate constant and order of reaction. Temperature dependence of rate constant – Arrhenius equation and activation energy.

**Electrochemistry:**

- Theory of electrical conductance; metallic and electrolytic conductance
- Faraday’s laws theory of strong electrolytes – Specific resistance, specific conductance, equivalent and molar conductance – Variation of conductance with dilution – Kohlrausch’s Law – Ionic product of water, pH and pH– buffer solutions – use of pH values
- Cells – Electrodes and electrode potentials – construction of cell and EMF values, Fuel cells, Corrosion and its prevention.

**Isomerism in Organic Compounds:**

- Definition, Classification – structural isomerism, stereoisomerism – geometrical and optical isomerism
- Optical activity- chirality – compounds containing chiralcentres – R, S notation, D, L notation.

**Alcohols and Ethers:**

- Nomenclature of Alcohols – Classification of alcohols - the distinction between 10, 20 and 30 alcohols – General methods of preparation of primary alcohols, properties
- Methods of preparation of dihydric alcohols: Glycol – Properties – Uses
- Methods of preparation of trihydric alcohols - Properties – Uses
- Aromatic alcohols – preparation and properties of phenols and benzyl alcohol
- Ethers – Nomenclature of ethers – general methods of preparation of aliphatic ethers -Properties – Uses
- Aromatic ethers – Preparation of Anisole – Uses.

**Carbonyl Compounds:**

- Nomenclature of carbonyl compounds – Comparison of aldehydes and ketones. General methods of preparation of aldehydes – Properties – Uses
- Aromatic aldehydes – Preparation of benzaldehyde – Properties and Uses
- Ketones – general methods of preparation of aliphatic ketones (acetone) – Properties – Uses
- Aromatic ketones – preparation of acetophenone Properties – Uses, preparation of benzophenone – Properties
- Name reactions; Clemmenson reduction, Wolff – Kishner reduction, Cannizzaro reaction, Claisen Schmidt reaction, Benzoin Condensation, Aldol Condensation
- Preparation and applications of Grignard reagents.

**Carboxylic Acids and their Derivatives:**

Nomenclature – Preparation of aliphatic monocarboxylic acids – formic acid – Properties –Uses. Monohydroxymono carboxylic acids; Lactic acid – Synthesis of lactic acid

Aliphatic dicarboxylic acids; Preparation of oxalic and succinic acids

Aromatic acids; Benzoic and Salicylic acids – Properties – Uses

Derivatives of carboxylic acids; acetyl chloride (CH3COCl) –Preparation – Properties – Uses Preparation of acetamide, Properties – acetic anhydride –Preparation, Properties. Preparation of esters – methyl acetate – Properties

**Organic Nitrogen Compounds and Biomolecules:**

- Aromatic nitro compounds – Preparation – Properties – Uses
- Distinction between aliphatic and aromatic nitro compounds
- Amines; aliphatic amines – General methods of preparation –Properties – Distinction between 10, 20 and 30 amines
- Aromatic amines – Synthesis of benzylamine – Properties, Aniline – Preparation – Properties – Uses. Differences between aliphatic and aromatic amines. Aliphaticnitriles – Preparation – Properties – Uses. Diazonium salts – Preparation of benzene diazonium chloride – Properties
- Carbohydrates – Distinction between sugars and non-sugars, structural formulae of glucose, fructose and sucrose, with their linkages, invert sugar – definition, examples of oligo and polysaccharides, Amino acids – Classification with examples, Peptides-properties of peptide bond, Lipids - Definition, classification with examples, the difference between fats, oils and waxes.
- Carbohydrates – Distinction between sugars and non sugars, structural formulae of glucose, fructose and sucrose, with their linkages, invert sugar –definition, examples of oligo and polysaccharides.
**Amino acids –**Classification with examples, Peptides - properties of peptide bond.**Lipids -**Definition, classification with examples, difference between fats, oils and waxes.

**Biology**

**Taxonomy:**

- Need for classification; three domains of life
- Linnaean, Whittaker, Bentham and Hooker systems of classification
- Salient features of non-chordates up to phyla levels and chordates up to class levels

**Cell and Molecular Biology:**

- Cell theory
- Prokaryotic cell and its ultrastructure
- Eukaryotic cell- cell wall, cell membrane, cytoskeleton, nucleus, chloroplast, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, ribosomes, lysosomes, vacuoles and centrosomes
- Cell cycle and division - amitosis, mitosis and meiosis
- Search for genetic material; the structure of DNA and RNA; replication, transcription, genetic code, translation, splicing, gene expression and regulation (lac operon) and DNA repair.

**Reproduction:**

- Asexual reproduction – binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule formation and fragmentation. Vegetative propagation in plants, sexual reproduction in flowering plants and structure of flowers.
- Pollination, fertilisation, development of seeds and fruits, seed dispersal, apomixis, parthenocarpy and polyembryony
- Human reproductive system
- Gametogenesis, menstrual cycle, fertilisation, implantation, embryo development up to blastocyst formation, pregnancy, parturition and lactation
- Assisted reproductive technologies.

**Genetics and evolution:**

- Chromosomes - structure and types, linkage and crossing over, recombination of chromosomes, mutation and chromosomal aberrations
- Mendelian inheritance, the chromosomal theory of inheritance, deviation from the Mendelian ratio (incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple allelism, pleiotrophy), sex-linked inheritance and sex determination in humans
- Darwinism, neo-Darwinism, Hardy and Weinberg’s principle and factors affecting the equilibrium: selection, mutation, migration and random genetic drift.

**Human health and diseases:**

- Pathogens, parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control
- Basic concepts of immunology, vaccines, antibiotics, cancer, HIV and AIDS. Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse

**Biochemistry:**

- Structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Enzymes – types, properties and enzyme action
- Metabolism - glycolysis, Kreb’s cycle and pentose phosphate pathway.

**Plant physiology:**

- Movement of water, food, nutrients, gases, and minerals
- Passive diffusion facilitateddiffusion, and active transport
- Imbibition, osmosis, apoplast and symplast transport and guttation
- Transpiration, photosynthesis (light and dark reactions) and electron transport chain
- Hormones and growth regulators, photoperiodism and vernalization. Nitrogen cycle and biological nitrogen fixation

**Human physiology:**

- Digestion and absorption, breathing and respiration, body fluids and circulation, excretory system, endocrine system, nervous system, skeletal and muscular systems
- Locomotion and movement, growth, ageing, and death. Hormones - types of hormones, functions and disorders

**Biotechnology and its applications:**

- Recombinant DNA technology, applications in health, agriculture and industries; genetically modified organisms; Human insulin, vaccine and antibiotic production
- Stem cell technology and gene therapy. Apiculture and animal husbandry
- Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, fortification, Bt crops and transgenic animals. Microbes in food processing, sewage treatment, wastemanagement and energy generation.
- Biocontrol agents and biofertilizers. Biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents.

**Biodiversity, ecology and environment:**

- Ecosystems: components, types, pyramids, nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous), ecological succession and energy flow in an ecosystem; Biodiversity - concepts, patterns, importance, conservation, hot spots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red data book, botanical gardens, national parks, sanctuaries, museums, biosphere reserves and Ramsar sites
- Environmental issues: pollution and its control
- Population attributes - growth, birth, and death rate and age distribution.

** Mathematics**

**Matrices and their Application:**

- Adjoint, inverse – properties, computation of inverses, the solution of the system of linear equations by matrix inversion method
- Rank of a matrix – elementary transformation on a matrix, consistency of a system of linear equations, Cramer’s rule, non-homogeneous equations, homogeneous linear system and rank method
- A solution of linear programming problems (LPP) in two variables

**Trigonometry and Complex Numbers:**

- Definition, range, domain, principal value branch, graphs of inverse trigonometric functions and their elementary properties.
- Complex number system - conjugate, properties, ordered pair representation. Modulus – properties, geometrical representation, polar form, principal value, conjugate, sum, difference, product, quotient, vector interpretation, solutions of polynomial equations, De Moivre’s theorem and its applications
- Roots of a complex number - nth roots, cube roots, fourth roots.

**Analytical Geometry of two dimensions:**

- Definition of aconic – general equation of a conic, classification with respect to the general equation of a conic, classification of conics with respect to eccentricity.
- Equations of conic sections (parabola, ellipse and hyperbola) in standard forms and general forms- Directrix, Focus and Latus-rectum - the parametric form of conics and chords
- Tangents and normals – Cartesian form and parametric form- the equation of chord of contact of tangents from a point (x1,y1) to all the above-said curves
- Asymptotes, Rectangular hyperbola – Standard equation of a rectangular hyperbola
- Vector Algebra:
- Scalar Product – angle between two vectors, properties of the scalar product, and applications of the dot product
- Vector product right handed and left handed systems, properties of vector product, applications of the cross product.
- The product of three vectors – Scalar triple product, properties of the scalar triple product, vector triple product, vector product of four vectors, scalar product of four vectors.

**Analytical Geometry of Three Dimensions:**

- Direction cosines – direction ratios - the equation of a straight line passing through a given point and parallel to a given line, passing through two given points, the angle between two lines
- Planes – equation of a plane, passing through a given point and perpendicular to a line, given the distance from the origin and unit normal, passing through a given point and parallel to two given lines, passing through two given points and parallel to a given line, passing through three given non-collinear points, passing through the line of intersection of two given planes, the distance between a point and a plane, the plane which contains two given lines (co-planar lines), angle between a line and a plane.
- Skew lines - the shortest distance between two lines, condition for two lines to intersect, point of intersection, collinearity of three points.
- Sphere – equation of the sphere whosecentre and radius are given, equation of a sphere when the extremities of the diameter are given.

**Differential Calculus:**

- Limits, continuity and differentiability of functions - Derivative as a rate of change, velocity, acceleration, related rates, derivative as a measure of slope, tangent, normal and angle between curves.
- Mean value theorem - Rolle’s Theorem, Lagrange Mean Value Theorem, Taylor’s and Maclaurin’s series, L’ Hospital’s Rule, stationary points, increasing, decreasing, maxima, minima, concavity, convexity and points of inflexion
- Errors and approximations – absolute, relative, percentage errors - curve tracing, partial derivatives, Euler’s theorem.

**Integral Calculus and its Applications**:

- Simple definite integrals – fundamental theorems of calculus, properties of definite integrals.
- Reduction formulae – reduction formulae for ò x dx n sin and ò x dx ncos, Bernoulli’s formula. Area of bounded regions, length of the curve.

**Differential Equations:**

- Differential equations - formation of differential equations, order and degree, solving differential equations (1st order), variables separable, homogeneous and linear equations
- Second order linear differential equations - second order linear differential equations with constantco-efficients, finding the particular integral if f(x) = emx, sin mx, cos mx, x, x2.

**Probability Distributions:**

- Probability – Axioms – Addition law - Conditional probability – Multiplicativelaw - Baye’s Theorem - Random variable - probability density function, distribution function, mathematical expectation, variance Theoretical distributions
- Discrete distributions, Binomial, Poisson distributions- Continuous distributions, Normal distribution.

**Discrete Mathematics:**

- Functions – Relations – Basics of counting
- Mathematical logic – logical statements, connectives, truth tables, logical equivalence, tautology, contradiction
- Groups-binary operations, semi groups, monoids, groups, order of a group, order of an element, properties of groups.

**English**

- Multiple Choice Questions
- Comprehension questions. They are based on short passages (30 -50 words) or lines of poems (2 -3) or dialogue (2 exchanges)
- English Grammar and Pronunciation.
- The candidates should read carefully the texts and the questions that follow and choose the CORRECT/ BEST answer from the options given for each question.
- The passages, lines of poems, dialogues, grammar and pronunciation items are chosen to suit the level of VITEEE 2025 takers.

**Aptitude **

- Data Interpretation
- Data Sufficiency
- Syllogism
- Number series, Coding and Decoding
- Clocks, Calendars and Directions